MODENA (Modélisation de l’Observation à Distance de l’ENvironnement Maritime) was a project labelized by the Pole Mer  Bretagne and MAREE was a Partner in that project. Between 2007 and 2010, MAREE has conducted experimental studies  concerning interactions between acoustic waves and the sea surface.

These acoustic measures focused on breaking waves studies: what are their parameters (size, life duration, number) versus wave scales.

They demonstrated that underwater acoustics is able to be an in-situ sea-surface investigation tool. It is a complement to atmospheric observations because these aerial measures are strongly affected by sea state and whitecaps: sea surface temperature, salinity, floating object detection …

Innovative measures have also been done by means of microphones. Atmospheric sound propagation above the sea surface and its potential for a sea-surface characterization purpose is a new field of research. An application concerns the noise radiated  by wind farms.

Picture of a rough sea surface
time-frequency picture of a breaking wave event
recorded by an hydrophone (top) and by a microphone (below)